have been asked where does the DNA indicate the Averills came from?
Current research provides us with a best guess of the Iberian Peninsula,
better known as Spain today. Imagine that ice has pushed down through
Europe and the inhabitants have to move to warmer climates in Spain
and the Ukraine. As the ice melted it would be only natural for the
emigration pattern to be that the people would move up the Atlantic
coast of Spain back into the British Isles. Haplogroup only tell us
deep (thousands of years) ancestry. Therefore if you and I have a different
Haplogroup then we can only relate 1000's of years ago.
The following is a much more detailed discussion of the origins
of the people of the British Isle obtained from the internet. Skip this
if you get bored easily!
In his 2006 book The Origins of the British, revised in 2007, Oppenheimer
argued that neither Anglo-Saxons nor Celts had much impact on the genetics
of the inhabitants of the British Isles, and that British ancestry mainly
traces back to the Paleolithic Iberian people, now represented best
by Basques, instead. He also argued that the Scandinavian input has
been underestimated. He published an introduction to his book in Prospect
magazine" and answered some of his critics in a further Prospect
magazine article in June 2007".
Oppenheimer uses genetic studies to give an insight into the genetic
origins of people in the British Isles and speculates on how to match
this evidence with documentary, linguistic and archaeological data to
give insights into the origins of Britain, the Celts, the Vikings and
the English. Oppenheimer uses DNA databases provided by Weale et al.,
Capelli et al. and Rosser et al. to provide new analyses of the haplotype
distributions in both the male and female lines of the populations of
Britain and Ireland (as well as Western Europe).
He breaks down the R1b haplogroup into a detailed set of "clans"
that are undefined.
He makes the case that the geography and climate have had an influence
on the genetics and culture of Britain, because of coastline changes.
These genetic and cultural changes stem from two main zones of contact:
Atlantic fringe, mainly from Spain and Portugal, to the western British
Northern Europe, originally across Doggerland to eastern England and
from Scandinavia to northern Scotland
Oppenheimer derives much archaeological information from Professor Barry
Cunliffe's ideas of the trading routes using the Atlantic from Spain,
and from the writings of:
Simon James (The Atlantic Celts - Ancient People or Modern Invention?
Francis Pryor (Britain B.C. : life in Britain and Ireland before the
Romans ISBN 0007126921)
John Collis (The Celts : origins, myths & inventions ISBN 0752429132)
Colin Renfrew, (Archaeology and Language - The Puzzle of Indo-European
Origins ISBN 0521354323) The work of the geneticist Peter Forster has
strongly influenced Oppenheimer's linguistic theories. He uses the evidence
that the Germanic genetic contribution to eastern England originated
before the Anglo-Saxon conquest of much of England incursion to suggest
that the possibility that some inhabitants of the isle of Britain spoke
English well before the so-called "Dark Ages".
Oppenheimer's main ideas include:
The importance of Cunliffe's Atlantic routes to the settling of Britain.
Since much British genetic material dates to the re-settlement of Britain
following the ice ages, all subsequent invasions/migrations/immigrations
occurred on a relatively small scale and did not replace Britain's population.
origins of Celtic culture lie in southwestern Europe. The Central European
([La Tène culture]) theory for Celtic origins has no basis. Celtic
culture arrived in the British Isles before the Iron Age and only involved
limited movement of people, mainly into the east of England.
There are some differences between the male and female origins of the
British population, but these are small.
Some genetic evidence is in support of Renfrew's theory that Indo-European
origins comes with farming.
Genetic evidence suggests that the division between the West and the
East of England does not begin with the Anglo-Saxon invasion but originates
with two main routes of genetic flow - one up the Atlantic coast, the
other from neighboring areas of Continental Europe. This happened just
after the Last Glacial Maximum. There is a cline between east and west,
rather than a sharp division.
Scandinavian influences, stronger than suspected, may outweigh West
A genetic difference exists between the Saxon areas of England and the
Anglian areas. (Oppenheimer suggests that the so-called Anglo-Saxon
invasion actually mostly consisted of an Anglian incursion.)
English being native to east Britain might explain the lack of Celtic
influence on early English and the genetic split between East and West.
Classical sources differentiate between Gallic/Celtic and Belgae. Sources
state that some of the (northern) Belgae have a German origin. Various
archaeological and linguistic evidence make for a weaker case for Celtic
presence in Belgium and Eastern England than in Gallic/Celtic or western
In Origins of the British (2006), Stephen Oppenheimer states (pages
375 and 378):
"By far the majority of male gene types in the British Isles derive
from Iberia (Spain and Portugal), ranging from a low of 59% in Fakenham,
Norfolk to highs of 96% in Llangefni, north Wales and 93% Castlerea,
Ireland. On average only 30% of gene types in England derive from north-west
Europe. Even without dating the earlier waves of north-west European
immigration, this invalidates the Anglo-Saxon wipeout theory..."
"...75-95% of British Isles (genetic) matches derive from Iberia...
Ireland, coastal Wales, and central and west-coast Scotland are almost
entirely made up from Iberian founders, while the rest of the non-English
parts of the British Isles have similarly high rates. England has rather
lower rates of Iberian types with marked heterogeneity, but no English
sample has less than 58% of Iberian samples..."
In page 367 Oppenheimer states in relation to Zoë H Rosser's pan-European
genetic distance map:
"In Rosser's work, the closest population to the Basques is in
Cornwall, followed closely by Wales, Ireland, Scotland, England, Spain,
Belgium, Portugal and then northern France."
He reports work on linguistics by Forster and Toth which suggests that
Indo-European languages began to fragment some 10,000 years ago (at
the end of the Ice Age). Oppenheimer claims that Celtic split from Indo-European
earlier than previously suspected, some 6000 years ago, while English
split from Germanic before the Roman period, see Forster, Polzin and
I told you this was boring!